UPSC Botany Syllabus

Botany is one of the optional subjects in the UPSC exam that can be selected by the candidates as per their interest. It is advised that the candidates with some background in the relevant field should select this as optional paper as this can enhance their chances of scoring good marks. What’s more they need to score good marks in the exam is the proper knowledge of the Botany paper syllabus. This article provided the complete details related to UPSC Botany Syllabus 2023 that the aspirants can check from below.

Botany Syllabus for UPSC exam 2023

Two papers from Botany will be there in the UPSC main exam namely Paper I and Paper II. Both papers are equally important and therefore the candidates should prepare well for both the papers. Below provided is the complete UPSC Botany Syllabus 2023 for both the papers.

Syllabus for Paper I

  1. Microbiology and Plant Pathology:
  • Structure and reproduction/ multiplication of viruses, viroids, bacteria, fungi and mycoplasma, medicine and in control of soil and water pollution, Prion and Prion hypothesis, Applications of microbiology in agriculture industry
  • Modes of infection and dissemination, Crop diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, mycoplasma, fungi and nematodes, Molecular basis of infection and disease resistance/ defence, Fungal toxins, Modelling and disease forecasting, Physiology of parasitism and control measures, Plant quarantine
  1. Cryptogams:

Distribution of Cryptogams and their ecological and economic importance, Algae, fungi, lichens, bryophytes, pteridophytes- structure and reproduction from evolutionary viewpoint

  1. Phanerogams:
  • Angiosperms: Systematics, anatomy, embryology, palynology and phylogency
  • Gymnosperms: Concept of Progymnosperms, Classification and distribution of gymnosperms, Ginkgoales, Coniferales and Gnetales, General account of Cycadofilicales, Salient features of Cycadales, Bennettitales and Cordiaitailes, Geological time scale, Type of fossils and their study techniques
  • Taxonomic hierarchy, International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, Numerical taxomomy and chemotaxomomy, Evidence from anatomy, embryology and palynology
  • Stomata and their types, Glandular and non-glandular trichomes, Unusual secondary growth, Anatomy of C3 and C4 plants, Xylem and phloem differentiation, Wood anatomy
  • Origin and evolution of angiosperms, Comparative account of various systems of classification of angiosperms, Study of angiospermic families- Mangnoliaceae, Ranunculaceae, Brassicaceae, Rosaceae, Fabaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Malvaceae, Dipterocarpaceae, Apiaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Verbenaceae, Solanaceae, Rubiaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Asteraceae, Poaceae, Arecaceae, Liliaceae, Musaceae and Orchidaceae
  • Development of male and female gametophytes, pollination, fertilization, Endosperm- its development and function, Patterns of embryo development, Polyembroyony, apomixes, Applications of palynology, Experimental embryology including pollen storage and Test tube fertilization
  1. Plant Resource Development:

Vavilov’s centres of origin, Perfumery, Importance of Ethnobotany in Indian context, Domestication and introduction of plants, Origin of cultivated plants, Plants as sources for food, fodder, fibres, spices, beverages, edible oils, drugs, narcotics, insecticides, timber, gums, resins and dyes, latex, cellulose, starch and its products, Energy plantations, Botanical Gardens and Herbaria

  1. Morphogenesis:

Totipotency, polarity, symmetry and differentiation, Cell, tissue, organ and protoplast culture, Micropropagation, Somaclonal variation and its applications, Somatic hybrids and Cybrids, Pollen haploids, embryo rescue methods and their applications

Syllabus for Paper II

  1. Cell Biology:

Cytoskeleton and microtubules, Nucleus, nucleolus, nuclear pore complex, Chromatin and nucleosome, Cell signaling and cell receptors, Signal transduction Mitosis and meiosis, molecular basis of cell cycle, Numerical and structural variations in chromosomes and their significance, Techniques of cell biology, Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells- structural and ultra-structural details, Structure and function of extracellular matrix and membranes-cell adhesion, membrane transport and vesicular transport, Structure and function of cell organelles, chloroplasts, mitochondria, ER, dictyosomes ribosome, endosomes, lysosomes, peroxisomes, Chromatin organization and packaging of genome, Polytene chromosomes, B-chromosomes- structure, behaviour and significance

  1. Genetics, Molecular Biology and Evolution:
  • Development of genetics, and gene versus allele concepts, Sex chromosomes and sex-linked inheritance, sex determination and molecular basis of sex differentiation, Mutations, Cytoplasmic inheritance and cytoplasmic genes, Quantitative genetics and multiple factors, Incomplete dominance, polygenic inheritance, multiple alleles, Linkage and crossing over of gene mapping including molecular maps
  • Structure and synthesis of nucleic acids and proteins, Genetic code and regulation of gene expression, Gene silencing, Multi-gene families, Organic evolution-evidences, mechanism and theories
  • Role of RNA in origin and evolution
  1. Plant Breeding, Biotechnology and Biostatistics:

Development and use of molecular markers in plant breeding, Tools and techniques—probe, southern blotting, DNA fingerprinting, PCR and FISH, Standard deviation and coefficient of variation (CV), Tests of significance (Z-test, t-test and chi-square tests), Probability and distributions (normal, binomial and Poisson), Methods of plant breeding- introduction, selection and hybridization, Mutation, polyploidy, male sterility and heterosis breeding, Use of apomixes in plant breeding, DNA sequencing, Genetic engineering—methods of transfer of genes, Transgenic crops and biosafety aspects, Correlation and regression

  1. Physiology and Biochemistry:

Plant movements, Photoperiodism and flowering, vernalization, senescence, Growth substances- their chemical nature, role and applications in agri-horticulture, growth indices, growth movements, Stress physiology (heat, water, salinity, metal), Fruit and seed physiology, Water relations, mineral nutrition and ion transport, mineral deficiencies, Photosynthesis, photochemical reactions, photophosphorylation and carbon fixation pathways, C3, C4 and CAM pathways, Mechanism of pholem transport, Respiration (anaerobic and aerobic, including fermentation), electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation, Photorespiration, Chemiosmotic theory and ATP synthesis, Lipid metabolism, Nitrogen fixation and nitrogen metabolism, Enzymes, coenzymes, Energy transfer and energy conservation, Importance of secondary metabolites, Pigments a photoreceptors (plastidial pigments and phytochrome), Dormancy, storage and germination of seed, Fruit ripening- its molecular basis and manipulation

  1. Ecology and Plant Geography:

Plant succession, Concepts of biosphere, Ecosystems, Concept of ecosystem, Ecological factors, Concepts and dynamics of community, Conservation, Pollution and its control (including phytoremediation), Concept of Sustainable  Development, Biogeochemical cycles, Global warming and climatic change, Invasive species, Environmental Impact Assessment, Phytogeographical regions of India, Plant indicators, Environment (Protection) Act, Forest types of India, Ecological and economic importance of forests, afforestation, deforestation and social forestry, Endangered plants, endemism IUCN categories, Red Data Books, Biodiversity and its conservation, Protected Area Network, Convention of Biological Diversity, Farmers’ Rights, and Intellectual Property Rights


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