National/ Official Languages in India: Check all official languages

In numerous entrance tests and recruitment exams for government jobs, questions regarding the National and languages of India are often asked. If you are also wondering what is the national language of India then you might be surprised to know that there is no national language in India. Instead, Indian constitution recognizes 22 regional languages. India is a diverse country with a large number of languages and dialects. Go through this post to know how many official languages are in India and many more interesting facts about National/ Official languages in India 2023.

Languages with official status in India: Facts and Figures

As per the Indian Constitution, here are some important facts related to Languages in India.

  • Many queries are often made such as what is the national language of India 2023?. Well, the answer to this question is that there is no national language in India.
  • In Article 343 (1) of the Indian Constitution, it is mentioned that “The official language of the Union shall be Hindi in Devanagari script. The form of numerals to be used for the official purposes of the Union shall be the international form of Indian numerals”.
  • The proceedings in Indian Parliament are transacted in Hindi and English Languages.
  •  Our constitution allows English to be used for official purposes such as parliamentary proceedings, judiciary, communications between the Central Government and a State Government.
  • Different states in India have the right to choose their languages through legislation.
  • There is a list of 22 scheduled languages in the Indian constitution. The 8 Schedule to the Indian Constitution contains a list of these 22 scheduled languages.
  • Please note that it is not compulsory for any state to choose its official language only from the list of scheduled languages.

List of officially Scheduled Languages in India 2023/ List of official languages in India 2023 as per Indian Constitution

Name of the Language Number of Speakers Officially recognized in State
Assamese 15.3 million Assam
Bengali 97.2 million West Bengal, Tripura, Assam, Jharkhand
Bodo 1.48 million Assam
Dogri 2.6 million Jammu and Kashmir
Gujarati 55.5 million Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu and Gujarat
Hindi 528 million Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Bihar, Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu, Chhattisgarh, Delhi, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Jharkhand, Ladakh, Madhya Pradesh, Mizoram, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal
Kannada 43.7 million Karnataka
Kashmiri 6.8 million Jammu and Kashmir
Konkani 2.25 million Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu, Goa
Maithili 13.6 million Jharkhand
Malayalam 34.8 million Kerala, Lakshadweep, Puducherry
Manipuri 1.8 million Manipur
Marathi 83 million Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu, Goa, Maharashtra
Nepali 2.9 million Sikkim, West Bengal
Odia 37.5 million Odisha, Jharkhand, West Bengal
Punjabi 33.1 million Delhi, Haryana, Punjab, West Bengal
Sanskrit 0.02 million Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand
Santali 7.3 million Jharkhand
Sindhi 2.7 million
Tamil 69 million Tamil Nadu, Puducherry
Telugu 81.1 million Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Puducherry
Urdu 50.7 million Bihar, Delhi, Jammu and Kashmir, Jharkhand, Telangana, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal

State-wise Official Languages in India 2023

As mentioned above, states are free to choose their official languages through legislation. Plus, it is not mandatory for states to choose languages only the list of 22 scheduled languages. For example – English is not mentioned in the list of scheduled languages. Still, it is an official language in many states in India.

State Official Languages Additional official languages
Andhra Pradesh Telugu English
Arunachal Pradesh English
Assam Assamese
Bihar Hindi
Chhattisgarh Hindi
Goa Konkani, English
Gujarat Gujarati
Haryana Hindi
Himachal Pradesh Hindi
Jharkhand Hindi
Karnataka Kannada English
Kerala Malayalam English
Madhya Pradesh Hindi
Maharashtra Marathi
Manipur Manipuri English
Meghalaya English Khasi and Garo
Mizoram Mizo Khasi and Garo
Nagaland English
Odisha Odia
Punjab Punjabi
Rajasthan Hindi
Sikkim English, Nepali, Sikkimese, Lepcha Gurung, Limbu, Magar, Mukhia, Newari, Rai, Sherpa and Tamang
Tamil Nadu Tamil English
Telangana Telugu Urdu
Tripura Bengali, English, Kokborok
Uttar Pradesh Hindi Urdu
Uttarakhand Hindi Sanskrit
West Bengal Bengali, English Darjeeling and Kurseong Sub-division – Nepali

Urdu, Hindi, Odia, Santali, Punjabi, Kamtapuri, Rajbanshi, Kurmali, Kurukh and Telugu in blocks, divisions or districts with population greater than 10 percent

Official Language of Union Territories in India 2023

State Official Languages Additional official languages
Andaman and Nicobar Islands Hindi, English Bengali, Tamil, Telugu, Andamanese
Chandigarh English
Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu Gujarati, Konkani, Marathi, Hindi
Delhi Hindi, English
Lakshadweep Malayalam English
Jammu and Kashmir Kashmiri, Dogri, Hindi, Urdu, English
Ladakh Hindi, English
Puducherry Tamil, French, English Telugu, Malayalam.
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