NIOS Class 12 Chemistry Syllabus 2024-25

NIOS class 12 chemistry syllabus 2024-25 aims to familiarize them with the principles, theories and laws of chemistry responsible for various chemical processes/ reactions. It also aims to provide important skills regarding synthesizing of simple compounds, handling apparatus and chemicals. The syllabus has been designed in a manner that it covers all these aspects. The different topics are divided under the core and optional modules in the Chemistry syllabus.

NIOS Chemistry Syllabus for Class 12

Details of the important modules comprised in the NIOS class 12th Chemistry syllabus along with all the important topics within these modules are provided below.

ModulesAllotted MarksAllotted Periods
Core Modules
Atoms Molecules and Chemical Arithmetics714
Atoms Structure and Chemical Arithmetics1233
States of Matter1218
Chemical Energetics823
Chemical Dynamics819
Chemistry of Elements1048
Chemistry of Organic Compounds1248
Optional Modules
Environmental Chemistry1537
Chemistry and Industry

Module 1: Atoms Molecules and Chemical Arithmetics

  • Lesson 1 Mole Concept- A simple idea of basic SI units, Counting and weighing of atoms and molecules, Avogadro constant, Molar quantities
  • Lesson 2 Chemical Arithmetics- Chemical formula and percentage composition, Empirical and molecular formulae, Mole, Mass, Volume relationships in chemical reactions, Limiting reagent concept and percentage yield

Module 2: Atoms Structure and Chemical Arithmetics

  • Lesson 3 Chemical Arithmetics- Fundamental particles of an atom (electron, Proton, Neutron), Rutherford’s nuclear model, Electromagnetic spectrum, Line spectra of H-atom: Bohr model (no derivation), Wave-particle duality: Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle, The wave mechanical model- orbital (probability picture may be emphasized), Quantum numbers, Pauli’s exclusion principle, Aufbau Principle- electronic configuration of atoms, Types of orbital (s, p, d, f), Shapes of s, p, d orbital, Hund’s rule
  • Lesson 4 Periodic Table and Atomic Properties- Long Form of periodic table and IUPAC nomenclature for elements with Z > 110 (brief mention), Variation in atomic properties (size, ionization energy, electron affinity, valency and electro-negativity)
  • Lesson 5 Chemical Bonding- Why do atoms combine? (Potential-energy diagram), Types of bonds and their characteristics (logic, Covalent, Coordinate, Metallic), Shapes of molecules, Introduction to VSEPR theory (upto 6 electron pairs only), Hybridization of atomic orbital, Multiple covalent bonds (σ, π) e.g. C2H4, C2H2, O. Theory, Homo-nuclear molecule (H2, N2, O2, F2), Bond Parameters, Hydrogen Bonding

Module 3: States of Matter

  • Lesson 6 Gaseous State- Properties, Boyle’s Law, Charles law-Kelvin Temperature Scale, Avogadro’s Law, Dalton’s law of partial pressures, Ideal gas equation, The kinetic molecular theory of gases (no derivation), Graham’s law of diffusion, real gases-deviations from ideal gas behavior, Van der Waals equation Liquefaction of gases, critical Constants
  • Lesson 7 Liquid State- Properties of liquids, Vapour pressure, Surface tension, Viscosity
  • Lesson 8 Solid State- Properties of solids, Classification of solids, Unit cell and their types, packing in crystals, Structure of simple ionic compounds, Imperfections in solids (Frenkel, Schottky defects)
  • Lesson 9 Solutions- Solution, solute and solvent, Concentration of solutions-molarity, molality, mole fraction, percentage and Strength, Types of solutions, Raoult’s law, Ideal and non-ideal solutions, Colligative properties of solutions, Van’t Hoff factor
  • Lesson 10 Colloids- The Colloidal Solution, True solution, colloidal solution and suspension, Classification of colloids, Preparation and properties of colloidal solutions, Applications of colloids

Module 4: Chemical Energetics

  • Lesson 11 Chemical Thermodynamics- System: Isolated, closed and open systems, Processes: cyclic, isothermal, adiabatic, reversible and irreversible, Standard state of a substance, Exothermic and endothermic reactions, Thermochemical equations, Concept of internal energy and enthalpy change, relationship between ΔH and ΔU, ΔI, 1st law of thermodynamics, Standard enthalpy of reactions, Enthalpy changes during a reaction: enthalpy of formation, enthalpy of combustion, enthalpy of neutralization, Hess’s law and its applications, Bond enthalpy
  • Lesson 12 Spontaneity of Chemical Reactions- Concept of entropy, entropy change and spontaneity, 2nd law of thermodynamics, Concept of free energy, relationship between G, H and S, Free energy change and spontaneity of a chemical reaction, Standard free energy of formation, Free energy change and chemical equilibrium, 3rd law of thermodynamics and its significance (illustrative)

Module 5: Chemical Dynamics

  • Lesson 13 Chemical Equilibrium- Dynamic nature of equilibrium; Factors affecting equilibrium, Reversible and irreversible reactions, Types of equilibrium system: Homogeneous and heterogeneous systems, Laws of chemical equilibrium, Relationship between Kc and Kp, Le Chatelier’s Principle and its applications
  • Lesson 14 Ionic Equilibria- Acid-base equilibrium, Ionisation constant of lead acids and bases, Ionization of water, pH value, Common Ion effect, Buffer solutions, Henderson equation, Solubility equilibrium, solubility product and its applications, Salt Hydrolysis, Acid base titration
  • Lesson 15 Electrochemistry- Oxidation and Reduction (Electron transfer concept), Oxidation number, balancing of Redox reaction by oxidation number method, Types of cells: Electrolytic and electrochemical, Electrolytic conduction (Conductance, conductivity molar conductivity, effect of dilution, Kohlrausch’s law), Standard electrode potential, Electrochemical series and its applications, Effect of concentration of electrode potentials (Nernst equation), Relationship between EMF and free energy change
  • Lesson 16 Chemical Kinetics- Rate of Reaction: Average and Instantaneous, Expressions for reaction rates, Factors affecting rate of reaction, Rate law, Order of a reaction, First order reaction, Half change period, Effect of temperature on reaction rate
  • Lesson 17 Adsorption and Catalysis- Adsorption- Physical and Chemical, Adsorption Isotherms (Freundlich and Langmuir), Catalysis- Homogenous and Heterogeneous, Activation energy

Module 6: Chemistry of Elements

  • Lesson 18 Occurrence and Extraction of Metals- Occurrence of metals, Important ores of some common elements: Na, Al, Sn, Pb, Ti, Fe, Cu, Ag and Zn, General principles involved in the isolation of metals from their ores (concentration of the ore, reduction and refining)
  • Lesson 19 Hydrogen and s-Block Elements- Unique position of H2 in Periodic, Properties reactions and uses, Isotopes of hydrogen, Water structure and aggregation of water molecules, Heavy Water, Hydrogen peroxide, Alkali Metals and Alkaline earth metals occurrence, electronic configuration trends in atomic and physical properties, reactivity electrode potential, Reaction with oxygen, hydrogen, halogens and water, Solubility and thermal stability of their oxo salts
  • Lesson 20 General characteristics of The p-block elements- Occurrence in nature and electronic configuration, (physical and chemical properties), Inert pair effect, Anomalous properties of first element
  • Lesson 21 p-Block elements and Their Compounds- I- Boron family-borax, boric acid, boron hydrides, halides, Carbon family-allotropes (graphite, diamond, elementary idea of fullerens), Oxides, carbides, halides, Nitrogen family-Ammonia, Nitric acid, fertilizer (N, P) and fixation of nitrogen industrial and biological, Nitrogenous and phosphatic fertilisers
  • Lesson 22 p-Block Elements and their compounds- II- Oxygen family-oxides, acidic, basic and amphoteric, Ozone (Oxidizing Properties), Halogens- Hydrides, oxides and oxoacids of Chlorine, Bleaching powder-preparation and properties, Interhalogen compounds, Noble gases-compounds of xenon: xenon fluorides, oxides (preparation, structure)
  • Lesson 23 d-Block and f-Block elements- Electronic configuration, General trends in the Chemistry of first row transition elements, Properties-metallic character, oxidation state, ionic radii, catalytic properties, coloured ions, complex formation, magnetic properties, interstitial compounds alloy formation, Preparation, properties and applications some important compounds: KMnO4, K2Cr2O7, f-Block elements- configuration, properties and lanthanide contraction
  • Lesson 24 Coordination Compounds– Werner’s theory, Nomenclature, Bonding-V.B. Approach, Applications (qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and biological systems)

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Module 7: Chemistry of Organic Compounds

  • Lesson 25 Nomenclature and General Principles- Rules of IUPAC Nomenclature, Types of bond fission, Types of reactions: substitution, addition, elimination, oxidation/reduction (electrophilic and nucleophillic), Electron displacement in a covalent bond: inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyperconjugation, steric effect, Isomerism–Structural isomerism, stereoisomerism
  • Lesson 26 Hydrocarbons- Definition and types of hydrocarbons (Alkane, Alkene, alkyne, Arene), IUPAC nomenclature, Preparation and Properties of Hydrocarbons, Physical properties of hydrocarbons, Chemical properties of hydrocarbons (addition, substitution, elimination, oxidation)
  • Lesson 27 Compounds of Carbon Containing Halogens (Haloalkanes and Haloarenes)- IUPAC Nomenclature of halogen compounds, Preparation of haloalkanes and haloarenes, Physical and chemical properties and uses
  • Lesson 28 Alcohol, Phenols and Ethers- Classification, IUPAC Nomenclature, Methods of preparation, Physical and Chemical properties
  • Lesson 29 Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic acids- Carboxylic Acids and acid derivatives, IUPAC Nomenclature, Preparation and Properties, Interconversion of acid derivations
  • Lesson 30 Compounds of Carbon Containing Nitrogen- Nitro compounds, amines, Classification of amines, IUPAC nomenclature, Preparation and properties
  • Lesson 31 Biomolecules- Difference between DNA and RNA, Biomolecules in biological systems, Structures of proteins and carbohydrates

Optional Modules

Module 1: Environmental Chemistry

  • Lesson 32 Environment at concerns- Idea of environment, Threats to environment, Pollutants
  • Lesson 33 Air Pollution- Composition of air, Respiration, photosynthesis and decay cycle, Air pollutants, Green house effect, Global warming, Depletion of ozone layer, Acid rain
  • Lesson 34 Water Pollution- Water resources, Water pollutants, Biological oxygen demand, Prevention of water pollution, Legislative measures for prevention of water pollution
  • Lesson 35 Heavy Metal Contamination- Heavy metals, Effects of heavy metal contamination, Preventive measures
  • Lesson 36 Radioactive Pollution- Radioactive sources, III effects of radiation, Preventive measures, Regulation regarding safety

Module 2: Chemistry and Industry

  • Lesson 32 Petrochemicals- Generations of petrochemicals, Soaps and detergents, Rocket propellants, Pollutants and Indian Space Programs
  • Lesson 33 Polymers- Classification, Teflox, polyester and nylons, Biodegradable polymers, Biopolymers
  • Lesson 34 Dyes, Paints and Pigments- Composition, Classification, Process of dying, Applications
  • Lesson 35 Drugs and Medicines- Distinction between drugs and medicines, Classification, Analgesics and antipyretics, Antibiotics and anesthetics
  • Lesson 36 Building Materials- Cement and its manufacture, Mortar, Concrete and R.C.C, Manufacture of glass, Ceramics and day products

NIOS Class 12th Chemistry Syllabus: Download PDF

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