CBSE Class 12 Economics Syllabus 2024-25

The students who want to perform well in the 12th class board exam of commerce stream should read and completely understand the CBSE Class 12 Economics syllabus 2024-25. Economics is one of the toughest yet high-scoring subjects as far as the commerce stream is concerned. The 12th class economic examination consists of 80 marks theory paper along with 20 marks project work. This article provides in-depth details about the chapters and topics covered under the CBSE Class 12 syllabus for Economics subject.

CBSE Class 12 Economics Syllabus 2024-25

Before going through the syllabus for CBSE class 12th Economics you should understand the exam structure as illustrated in the table below and later we’ll share with you the unit-wise syllabus for both the terms.

Units MarksPeriods
Part AIntroductory Macroeconomics  
 National Income and Related Aggregates1030
 Money and Banking0615
 Determination of Income and Employment1230
 Government Budget and the Economy0617
 Balance of Payments0618
Part BIndian Economic Development  
 Development Experience (1947-90) and Economic Reforms since 19911228
 Current Challenges facing Indian Economy2050
 Development Experience of India – A Comparison with Neighbours0812
 Theory Paper (40+40 = 80 Marks)40 
Part CProject Work2020

Part A: Introductory Macroeconomics

Unit 1: National Income and Related Aggregates                                                  30 Periods

What is Macroeconomics?

Basic concepts in macroeconomics: consumption goods, capital goods, final goods, intermediate goods; stocks and flows; gross investment and depreciation.

Circular flow of income (two sector model); Methods of calculating National Income – Value Added or Product method, Expenditure method, Income method.

Aggregates related to National Income:

Gross National Product (GNP), Net National Product (NNP), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and Net Domestic Product (NDP) – at market price, at factor cost; Real and Nominal GDP.

GDP and Welfare

Unit 2: Money and Banking                                                                                      15 Periods

Money – meaning and functions, supply of money – Currency held by the public and net demand deposits held by commercial banks.

Money creation by the commercial banking system.

Central bank and its functions (example of the Reserve Bank of India): Bank of issue, Govt. Bank, Banker’s Bank, Control of Credit through Bank Rate, CRR, SLR, Repo Rate and Reverse Repo Rate, Open Market Operations, Margin requirement.

Unit 3: Determination of Income and Employment                                               30 Periods

Aggregate demand and its components.

Propensity to consume and propensity to save (average and marginal). Short-run equilibrium output; investment multiplier and its mechanism. Meaning of full employment and involuntary unemployment.

Problems of excess demand and deficient demand; measures to correct them – changes in government spending, taxes and money supply.

Unit 4: Government Budget and the Economy                                                      17 Periods

Government budget – meaning, objectives and components. Classification of receipts – revenue receipts and capital receipts;

Classification of expenditure – revenue expenditure and capital expenditure. Balanced, Surplus and Deficit Budget – measures of government deficit.

Unit 5: Balance of Payments                                                                                    18 Periods

Balance of payments account – meaning and components; Balance of payments – Surplus and Deficit

Foreign exchange rate – meaning of fixed and flexible rates and managed floating. Determination of exchange rate in a free market, Merits and demerits of flexible and fixed exchange rate.

Managed Floating exchange rate system

Part B: Indian Economic Development

Unit 6: Development Experience (1947-90) and Economic Reforms since 1991:

28 Periods

A brief introduction of the state of Indian economy on the eve of independence. Indian economic system and common goals of Five Year Plans.

Main features, problems and policies of agriculture (institutional aspects and new agricultural strategy), industry (IPR 1956; SSI – role & importance) and foreign trade.

Economic Reforms since 1991:

Features and appraisals of liberalisation, globalisation and privatisation (LPG policy); Concepts of demonetization and GST

How to Make Money on Quora

Unit 7: Current challenges facing Indian Economy                                                60 Periods Human Capital Formation: How people become resource; Role of human capital in economic development; Growth of Education Sector in India

Rural development: Key issues – credit and marketing – role of cooperatives; agricultural diversification; alternative farming – organic farming

Employment: Growth and changes in work force participation rate in formal and informal sectors; problems and policies

Sustainable Economic Development: Meaning, Effects of Economic Development on Resources and Environment, including global warming

Unit 8: Development Experience of India:                                                              12 Periods

A comparison with neighbours India and Pakistan

India and China

Issues: economic growth, population, sectoral development and other Human Development Indicators

Part C: Project in Economics                                                                        20 Periods

List of Prescribed Books

  1. Statistics for Economics, NCERT
  2. Indian Economic Development, NCERT
  3. Introductory Microeconomics, NCERT
  4. Macroeconomics, NCERT
  5. Supplementary Reading Material in Economics, CBSE

Note: The above publications are also available in Hindi Medium.

Check CBSE Revised Class 12th Economics Syllabus: Download

Also Check

CBSE Class 12th Syllabus (All Subjects)

CBSE syllabus

2 thoughts on “CBSE Class 12 Economics Syllabus 2024-25”

  1. I need class 12th economics both books (Indian Economic Development and Introductory Macroeconomics) 2020-21 pdf


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